Wednesday, December 7, 2011

Kidney Stone - Causes, Symptoms, Types

A kidney stone is known as a renal calculus. Kidney stones are common disease, often occur in premature infants. Kidney stone is a solid mass made up of small crystals.  At the same time there is one or more stones can be found in the kidney or ureter.

Signs and Symptoms 
The hallmark of stones that obstruct the ureter or renal pelvis is excruciating intermittent pain that radiates from the flank to the groin or to the genital area and inner thighThis particular type of pain, known as renal colic, is often described as one of the strongest pain sensations known. Renal colic caused by kidney stones is commonly accompanied by urinary urgency, restlessness, blood in the urine, sweating, nausea and vomiting. It typically comes in waves lasting 20 – 60 minutes caused by peristaltic contractions of the ureter as it attempts to expel the stoneThe embryological link between the urinary tract, the genital system and the gastrointestinal tract is the basis of the radiation of pain to the gonads, as well as the nausea and vomiting that are also common in urolithiasis Postrenal azotemia and hydronephrosis can be observed following the obstruction of urine flow through one or both ureters

There are dissimilar types of kidney stones. Cause of Kidney stones depends on the type of stone.

Cystine stones:  It  can form in people who have cystinuria. This disorder runs in families and affects both men and women. Cystinuria is a condition passed down through families in which stones form in the kidney, ureter, and bladder. Symptoms: Blood in the urine; Flank pain or pain in the side or back usually on one side.

Struvite stones: They are mostly found in women who have a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow very large and can block the kidney, ureter, or bladder. Struvite urinary stones and crystals form readily in the urine of animals and humans that are infected with ammonia-producing organisms. They are potentiated by alkaline urine and high magnesium excretion. They also are potentiated by a specific urinary protein, in domestic cats.

Calcium stones: Calcium is single component of the most common type of human kidney stones, calcium oxalate. Some studies suggest that people who take supplemental calcium have a higher risk of developing kidney stones, and these findings have been used as the basis for setting the recommended daily intake (RDI) for calcium in adults. They are more common in men between ages 20-30. Calcium can combine with other substances, such as oxalate phosphate, or carbonate to form the stone. Oxalate is present in certain foods such as spinach. It is also found in vitamin C supplements. Diseases of the small intestine increase your risk of these stones.
Symptoms of Kidney Stone:
You may not have symptoms until the stones move down the tubes through which urine empties into your bladder. When this happens, the stones can block the flow of urine out of the kidneys.
·  Blood in the urine, Fever,  vomiting , Abnormal urine color
·  The main symptom is severe pain that starts suddenly and may go away suddenly:
·  Pain may be felt in the belly area or side of the back
·  Pain may move to groin area or testicles